Diabetes

This is a tutorial for Diabetes.

This is suitable for GCSE and A Level.

There are two types of Diabetes type 1 and type 2.

Insulin action and diabetes type 1 and 2

Image supplied by Alila Medical Media. Click on the link to see more images of the endocrine system.

For GCSE you only need to know the basic difference between type 1 and type 2. Also you need to know how to treat both. For A level you need to know all the information on this page.

Type 1 Diabetes

GCSE: The cells of the pancreas do not produce enough insulin. When the person eats and digests food the blood sugar level rises. Treatment is with diet, monitoring blood sugar level and injections of insulin.

A Level: The beta cells of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas do not produce enough insulin. This is often due to an autoimmune response where the destruction of the beta cells has occurred. The person needs to monitor their diet for intake of carbohydrates. Also they will need to check their blood glucose concentration. The diabetes can be treated by injections of insulin.

Type 2 Diabetes.

This is often known as adult onset diabetes.

GCSE: The liver cells produce the insulin but the bodies cells do not respond to the insulin. This is normally treated with diet, medication and insulin injections.

A Level: The beta cells of the inslets of langerhans in the pancreas still produce the insulin. However, the liver and muscle cells have insulin receptors on their cell surface membrane. The receptors do not seem to recognise the insulin. Therefore the blood glucose concentration is not lowered. This can be treated with a low carbohydrate diet, medication and insulin injections.